Mood in Daily Life
- The Mood in Daily Life (MIDL) Study investigated the links between mood changes and physical health, social support, perceived stress and the menstrual cycle over twenty four weeks in women of reproductive age living in the Greater Toronto Area.
- The Sleep and Mood in Daily Life study aimed to explain how we can improve the sleep of women. Women are thought to have more trouble sleeping than men, but it is not yet understood why this is. This study investigated the importance of the effects of physical health, social support, stress, mood and biology in determining sleep patterns in a community sample of randomly selected women aged 18-40 over a period of six weeks.
Li, D.X., Romans, S., De Souza, M.J., Murray, B., & Einstein, G. (2015) Actigraphic and self-reported sleep quality in women: associations with ovarian hormones and mood. Sleep Medicine 16(10): 1217-1224.
Romans, S., Kreindler, D., Einstein, G., Laredo, S. Petrovic, M.J., & Stanley, J. (2015) Sleep Quality and the Menstrual Cycle. Sleep Medicine 16(4): 489-495.
Romans, S.E., Kreindler, D., Asllani, E., Einstein, G., Laredo, S., Levitt, A., Morgan, K., Petrovic, M., Toner, B., & Stewart, D.E. (2013) Mood and the menstrual cycle. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 82: 53-60.
Romans, S., Clarkson, R., Einstein, G., & Stewart, D. (2012) Premenstrual or perimenstrual? A review of prospective data studies of mood and the menstrual cycle. Gender Medicine 9(5), 361–384.
Schwartz, D., Romans, S., Meiyappan, S., DeSouza, M.J., & Einstein, G. (2012) The role of ovarian steroids in mood. Hormones and Behavior, 62,448–454.
Neurobiological Effects of Female Genital Circumcision/Mutilation/Cutting (FGC)
Female Genital Cutting (FGC) is a cultural practice that involves cutting muscle and nerves of the female genitalia. Pain research on women with FGC has focused mainly on the procedure itself, menstruation, childbirth, and sexual intercourse. However, it also seems that for many women with FGC, the experience of pain is constant and persistent during daily activities.
Our research focused on whether damage to nerve and muscle at this specific site results in a “rewiring” of the nervous system, leading to a whole body experience of the modification. To test this hypothesis, study volunteers participated in interviews and questionnaires, as well as neurological and physical tests.
The results of this study will improve the health of immigrants and women of a visible minority living in North America. Our findings are also relevant to the health of all women, especially those who have any kind of body modification by cutting—such as FGC, radical vulvectomy, radical mastectomy, and/or cosmetic surgeries such as breast or labia reduction/augmentation.
Einstein, G. (2012) Situated Neuroscience: Elucidating a Biology of Diversity. in: Bluhm, R., Maibom, H., & Jacobson, A.J. (Eds). Neurofeminism: Issues at the Intersection of Feminist Theory and Cognitive Science, New York: Palgrave McMillan, 145–174.
Einstein, G. (2008) From body to brain: considering the neurobiological effects of female genital cutting. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 51, 84–97.
Sex Differences in Somatosensation
The structure and function of body systems – especially the nervous system – are influenced by the context of people’s lives. These influences include hormones, sex, genetics, and gender, as well as culture, social environment and personal life experiences. In turn, these factors can influence how our bodies function, feel and think.
The purpose of this study is to begin studying sex differences in the somatosensory cortex – the part of the brain that receives information about painful or pleasurable touch, pressure and temperature. We will investigate the factors that influence breast sensitivity, including age, mood and hormone levels.
The information gathered from this research may be beneficial to the scientific community and to future studies of sensation, the breast, hormones, mood, and women’s health.